Pine; It is a material formed by the dissolution of various metal oxides and supercooled alkaline earth metal and alkali metal oxides. Glasses that solidify while preserving their molten amorphous structure are inorganic objects.
History of Glass
Glass is one of the oldest materials that human beings have discovered and started to produce. The oldest glass product has been found in archaeological excavations until 5500 BC. Glass emerged with the development of Egyptian tiles, which are not really tiles.
The similarity with glass products of the time when Egyptian tiles were found is so much; the emergence of glass considering the primitive tools and equipment, furnaces and conditions of the time; It is thought to occur as a result of bringing this tile paste to high temperatures, cooking it for a long time or having an excess of sodium in its content.
General Properties of Glass
A wide variety of glass products are included in almost home and art activities, in all industrial areas.
It has waterproof, chemical and mechanical resistance, optical and aesthetic functions.
The optical branch is a privileged use of glass. It provides visual contact between its exterior and interior parts thanks to its transparency.
The refractive index can be increased, so it can be used in valuable products such as glass (glass), crystal and optical systems.
The mechanical strength of the glass can be strengthened by compacting the surfaces with the quenching method.
It is resistant to thermal stresses, impacts and bending. These properties make glass a desirable material for vehicles and buildings.
The aesthetic function of glass is seen in multi-layer glasses and reflective glasses that decorate the walls.
Glass (glass) is not an environmentally polluting material.
A significant amount of glass production is reused by recycling to save energy and raw materials.
It is possible to add many elements of the periodic table to the composition of glass. Commercial glasses are divided into three groups:
Glass products used for tea glasses, household glasses and many other purposes are soda-lime glass.
The processing temperature of this glass is low and its light transmission feature is high.
Soda-free glass is pure glass and generally pure materials have high processing temperatures.
When soda and silica are mixed and heated, the melting temperature drops and the liquid glass becomes easier to flow. In this way, smoother glass surfaces are obtained.
The disadvantage of soda-lime glass is that there is an excessive expansion in temperature changes.
Lead glass is produced using lead oxide instead of soda.
Crystal glasses, a type of glass, contain 24% PbO.
The softer lead glass is processable.
Its light refraction feature is higher than others.
In order to be used as radiation shielding glass, it must contain a high rate of lead oxide, such as 65%.
Another feature of lead is that it does not pass radioactive rays.
Borosilicate glass is produced from 7-13% boron oxide, 70-80% silicate, trace amounts of alkali and aluminium oxide.
The reason why it is resistant to chemicals and heat is that it contains a small amount of alkali in its structure.
Borosilicate glasses had high light transmittance, so they are used in the production of prism and lens glasses.
It is highly resistant to halogens, organic materials, salt solutions, acids and water.