What is Ceramic
Ceramic products are called metal and non-organic materials that are hardened and hardened by firing at high temperatures after they are shaped. Ceramics, which have a fragile structure, can often be found in the form of oxide, carbide and nitrite. Atoms in ceramic products consisting of two or more elements are held together by chemical bonds.
General Properties of Ceramic Materials
When its general properties are examined, it is seen that it is hard, brittle and resistant to abrasion. Ceramic, which has insulating properties against heat and electricity, also has the characteristics of resistant, rotproof and stainless. Ceramic can be distorted or broken. The melting temperature of the ceramic, which has insulating properties, is very high due to its resistance to high temperatures.
Contrary to these known general features, there are also ceramic products with different features such as semiconductor, conductive, multi-conductor, light-transmitting, glassy.
How is Ceramic Obtained?
It is obtained by firing materials such as clay and kaolin, which are broken down by the effect of external factors in nature, at high temperatures. Materials such as stone, concrete, cement, brick, tile, glass, porcelain are products that can be called ceramic in the terracotta group.
With the addition of some minerals to these products obtained from clay soil, it can be easily shaped, strengthened and gained a glassy structure. It is also prevented from being deformed by firing at high temperatures and gaining hardness.
What are the Types of Ceramic?
Ceramic products, which are divided into various types according to their structures, are divided into three, these are:
- Ceramic products with porous structure
- Ceramic products with hard, consolidated structure
- It is classified as ceramic products in porcelain structure. It is the most qualified and valuable among porcelain ceramic products. Ceramic products with a porous structure are fired with less heat than porcelain products.
What are Ceramic Forming Techniques?
Since non-crystalline ceramic products can be melted, they can be easily shaped by casting or blowing when they are in glass consistency. If crystallization occurs in the resulting product, it is included in this glass-ceramic class.
Crystalline ceramics, on the other hand, are shaped with more limited techniques than others.
Ceramic shaping techniques; It is classified with variations such as hand shaping, casting technique called slip casting, tape casting technique used in the production of very fine mesh, injection moulding, dry pressing and pouring technique applied by exposing the ceramic to dense mud just before firing.
Classification of Ceramics and Usage Areas
Traditional Ceramic: In this class of ceramic products, which are dated from today to the most primitive state and the first production stage, it is seen that the bowls and pots are generally made by blending animal fat and bones with clay. The oldest ceramic finds were sculptural figures found in Europe. Traditional ceramic materials; It has been applied in many areas such as brick, paving stones, tiles, bathrooms, baths, tiles, chimneys, sinks, flower pots, vases, old mains pipes, plates, glasses, bowls, pots, tableware, glassware, sanitary ware.
Advanced Ceramics: Instead of clay as building materials, they are produced from a combination of oxide or non-oxide or a combination of both. They are also known as engineering ceramics. It is used in many areas such as prosthetic bone and ceramic bones, aircraft runway platforms, coatings of jet turbine blades and remote technology due to their non-reactivity and hardness.