What is Ceramic?

It is stated in the dictionaries that the word ceramic consists of the word Queremos, which means horn in Greek, and that a horn-shaped vase is named with this name. Ceramique, which is the way of speaking in French, was added to Turkish as ceramic. It is used as ceramic in English and it is used as ceramic in German. Ceramics with unique properties and high strength; It is obtained by shaping and sintering inorganic materials that are not metal or metal alloys, reduced to the desired grain size.  Ceramics are obtained by firing kaolin, clay and similar materials formed by the breakdown of rocks exposed to external influences at high temperatures. Ceramic (ceramic) is known by the public as a terracotta-based material.

  Ceramic History

  Ceramic pots discovered in Çatalhöyük and Hacılar archaeological excavations in Anatolia are works that show the earliest histories of ceramic art. B.C. These vessels, made in 6000 BC, are decorated with iron oxide ocher. Greek potters BC. In the 6th and 5th centuries, the Romans began to produce ceramics that are easy to transport, influenced by these products, as they began to shape the pottery by changing its size and shape, and the increase in trade relations.

Traditional Ceramics

They are obtained by firing materials such as feldspar, clay and kaolin at high temperatures.

There are different types of aluminates, silicates and some metal oxides in addition to these in their composition.

Refractories are glass, porcelain, brick, abrasive salts, tiles and stones.

Advanced Technology Ceramics

High-tech ceramics; It consists of carbide, nitride and oxides.

It is used significantly in the aerospace and aircraft industry.

Advanced Ceramic Applications

  The product range is wide, including advanced ceramics applications nowadays, from metal fabrication and machining to refrigerator magnets, electronics, automotive and aerospace. Ceramics are also permanently established in many areas from daily use to industries. Advanced ceramics, generally known as biological ceramics in modern medicine, are gaining a more important role day by day. Biological ceramics such as zirconia and alumina are chemically inert and polishable hard materials. They are used as bone substitutes and dental implants in orthopaedic operations such as knee and hip prostheses.

  How is Ceramic Made?

 Kaolinite, tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, aluminium oxide, clay and certain pure elements are among the raw materials of ceramic material. These mixed raw materials are combined with water to be shaped and moulded. It is very difficult to work with ceramics after they are made, so ceramics are usually shaped according to their desired final state. The shaped form is left to dry and then baked in an oven at a specific temperature.  The ignition process provides energy to the material so that new chemical bonds and sometimes new minerals are formed. The product called bisque is what appears after the first firing of the ceramic. It is the first ignition that burns other volatile impurities and organics. It can be called glass after the second and third ignition. Decorative, functional, or waterproof glazes can be added before the first firing, or they may require a frequent subsequent second firing.