Since ancient times, mosaic, which has been used in many areas and ways due to its aesthetic, healthy and natural nature, is an art that has been adopted and developed by many civilizations around the world. Mosaic is the oldest ornamentation and art technique, which is created by creating various shapes or randomly arranging small or reduced pieces of various colours side by side.
The Emergence and Development of Mosaic Technique
Since its existence, man has developed various arts and techniques to beautify his living spaces, to decorate and bless places of worship. One of the oldest of these is the mosaic processing technique that can be easily obtained from nature and whose main material is stone. This application, which originally emerged as an art, started to be used for upholstery and coating processes since it was a healthy building material and decoration under changing conditions.
Zeugma Mosaic Museum and Adana Misis Mosaic Museum, which are located in cities such as Gaziantep and Hatay, have rich collections. Turkey's territory has been witness to many civilizations throughout the ages almost parades and civilization. In archaeological excavations in Anatolia, there are various mosaic embroideries belonging to many historical periods such as Rome, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman. There are rich mosaic museums in many countries such as Italy, Tunisia, Spain and India around the world.
What Are Mosaic Materials?
This technique, which has been used since the early ages of humanity, was made with materials such as stone, seashell, marble, and granite in different colours available in nature. Mosaic, which can be applied with simple tools but on the other hand requires very sensitive work, mastery and effort, has been applied and developed with processed materials such as glass, ceramic, tile, brick, paper and fabric in the ages with the development of technology.
Mosaic Application Techniques
Mosaic is applied by dipping small or reduced pieces on the plaster or sticking on the floor. This practice of art, which has been used by many civilizations throughout the ages, varies according to the conditions of the geography where the civilizations were established, their religious and cultural infrastructures, and their understanding of art.
- The classic pattern made by using small or broken brick pieces, which has a transitional appearance with the formation of another shape behind each shape,
- Worm pattern applied by pre-determining the borders and filling it,
Brick pattern using bricks and pebbles as the main material,
- The grid pattern, which is seen as the simplest technique and takes its name from the image formed by bringing stones of the same size side by side,
- Palladian pattern, which is generally used in the floor covering, consisting of large and small pieces formed by an arbitrary sequence,
- The most common mosaic application techniques can be considered in Islamic geography, including the Florentine pattern, which is made of baked brick pieces in larger sizes compared to other techniques and distinguished by plant and geometric shapes.
What are the Application Areas of Mosaic?
Throughout its history, Mosaic has found its application area in dozens or even hundreds of fields depending on its technique, period, type of material and application area. While it was art used in the decoration of holy places and palaces in the early periods, it was used in various fields later on. Some of the other usage areas can be summarized as follows:
- Coating of all interior and exterior surfaces
- Garden and walkways
- Bathroom, Turkish bath, pool, sauna flooring
- Health centres
- Public institutions and organizations
- Shopping malls
- Hospitals and places where hygiene is important